Capturing A Shock Breakout

The
bright flash, fierce and glaring of the shock wave from the explosion
of a star – what astronomers call the rupture shock – was first observed
in the optical wavelength (visible light) telescope
space NASA Kepler planet hunting. This
type of exploding stars, or supernovae, are of the most powerful
stellar explosions known, and you can see all the way to the far edge of
the visible universe.
When
a massive star dies in a supernova fury unleashed “death”, which leaves
behind a sad testimony of his former existence, a very strange, dense
little “weird” called a neutron star or, alternatively, a resident more
Cosmos strange – a black hole of stellar mass. In
March 2011, an international team of astronomers led by Dr. Peter
Garnavich, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Notre Dame in
Indiana announced significant initial observation of this bright flash
of a massive star explodes.
This stellar explosion called a collapse or event type II supernova core.
Dr
Garnavich and colleagues analyzed the light captured by Kepler every 30
minutes over a period of three years from 500 distant galaxies,
examining some 50 billion stars.
Astronomers were looking for evidence of supernovae.
In 2011, a massive star duo, known red supergiants was criticized outside while watching the Kepler. The
first duo condemned giant star, nicknamed KSN 2011a, is nearly 300
times the size of our Sun, and only about 700 million light years from
Earth.
The second pair of tragic star named KSN 2011d, is about 500 times the size of our star and about 1.2 million light years.
“To put in perspective the size of the orbit of the Earth around our
sun could fit comfortably within these colossal stars,” said Dr.
Garnavich in March 21, 2016 NASA press release.
Stars beat towards energy following the nuclear fusion process. Unlike
our little sunshine, that are not massive enough to fuse elements
heavier atomic, the most massive stars may merge atomic elements
hydrogen and helium, and then go on through all the elements more
heavy atomic – until a core forms of iron and nickel.
As
a massive red supergiant age, they produce “onion layers” more and
heavier atomic fusion elements on their nuclear-hearts. However, even
massive stars can not merge the atomic elements that are heavier than
.
iron Indeed, no melting iron releases energy therefore, an iron core
accumulates in the centers of these massive supergiant star, not nuclear
fusion can occur more. – leave the stellar mass inert core
nickel-iron.
Because there is no longer output power, resulting in the outward
pressure to counteract the pressure in the self-gravity of the star, the
balance is broken
– and the end is near.
Finally,
the inevitable end comes when the iron core reaches the so-called
Chandrasekhar limit – which is about 1.4 times the mass of our Sun. When
something is this extraordinarily solid, nothing, nothing, nothing at
all you can hold it against her fatal collapse.
When the core of a massive star collapses, two important things happen:
–Protons And electrons are crushed together to give rise to neutrons and neutrinos. Although not easily neutrinos interact with matter, when densities are so high, they exert enormous pressure outward.
–The Outer layers of the dying star fall inwards when the iron core collapses. When
finally just collapsed core – which occurs when the neutrons begin to
gather too much, in a process called degeneration of neutrons – the
massive star outer gaseous layers accident condemned in the core, to
recover again, sending
shock wave outwardly.
These two effects – waves burst of neutrinos and clash recbound – make
all the material of the star that is outside of his heart to blow in a
huge explosion: a core collapse supernova type II!
Supernovae
are brilliant – they are about 10 billion times brighter than our sun
In fact, supernovae can briefly outshine its entire host galaxy for
weeks – only a brief moment in brilliant cosmological timescales.
These huge brilliant explosions tend to disappear over months or years.
A huge amount of energy is released during the explosion of a supernova. A percentage of this energy is used to merge atomic elements that are even heavier than iron. All atomic elements that are heavier than helium are called metals in the terminology used by astronomers. The
origin of the heaviest atomic elements of everything– including
silver, gold, uranium and zinc – are produced in the supernova explosion
itself, rather than in nuclear fusion oven to
a massive star still alive.
The
dead star material that gets thrown into space following the explosion
of the supernova, becomes part of the interstellar medium (ISM).
new fire baby stars and their attendant planets intriguing born expelled for these elderly stars in the ISM condemned material. Because the ISM has been “contaminated” by these heavy metals attacked
by supernovas, planets are born of the material in the ISM contain some
of these heavy atomic elements.
The
collapsed stellar core also left behind by a Type II supernova, and
these relics telling the tragic story of a star that was – but no more.
If the basis weight is less than two or three times that of our sun becomes a neutron star. However, if more than 2 or 3 solar masses persist, nothing can contain – and collapses into a black hole of stellar mass.
There are several types of core supernovae outbursts, depending on the resulting light curve. A light curve is a graph of brightness with time after the deadly period starburst. Type II-L supernovae show a linear decrease of the light curve after the explosion. In contrast, type II-P display a much slower fall period (tea) in its light curve, which is followed by the normal breakdown. Type
Ib supernovae and type Ic are the two basic forms involving a massive
star supernovae, which was launched into space in its gaseous outer
envelope of hydrogen and (type Ic) helium, too.
The result of this is that the two types Ib and Ic supernovae appear to lack of hydrogen and helium kind.
Catch a shock Breakout
Capture
images of a sudden catastrophic explosion is extremely difficult – but
very useful for astronomers to understand the fundamental origin of the
explosive event.
However,
the constant gaze of Kepler has enabled astronomers to observe,
finally, a shock wave from the supernova as it reaches the surface of a
massive star and sentenced to die.
The crash of break lasts only a short 20 minutes, so catching this
gossipy flash energy is a challenge – and an important step in the
search for the team of astronomers.
“To
see something that occurs on time scales of minutes, as a break from
shock, you want to have a continuous sky surveillance camera. You do not
know when a supernova is shutting down, and the
followed Kepler has enabled us to be a witness who started the blast, “said Dr. Garnavich March 21, 2016 press release NASA.
The
duo observed supernovae corresponded very well with the mathematical
models Fireworks Type II supernovae – the strengthening of existing
theories.
However, the two explosions also unveiled what may be an unexpected
variety in the individual details of the ferocious and brilliant stellar
explosions.
While both explosions delivered similar energy shock, offend no leaks were detected in the smallest of the red supergiant duo. Astronomers think that is probably due to the star sentenced smaller
still surrounded by gas, can be plentiful enough to wrap the shock wave
when it reaches the surface of the star.
“That’s the enigma of these results. Miras two supernovas and see two different things,” Dr. Garnavich told the press.
Understanding
the physics involved in these stellar explosions, very violent
catastrophic sheds new light on how the seeds of chemical complexity and
life itself were scattered through space and time in our large galaxy
spiral.
“All the heavy elements in the universe come from supernova explosions. For example, all the silver, nickel and copper on Earth and even our bodies came from the explosive death throes of stars. Life
exists because of the supernovae, “said Dr. Steve Howell, March 21,
2016 press release NASA. Dr. Howell’s Project Scientist for the mission
Kepler K2 and NASA Ames Research Center of NASA
in Silicon Valley, California. K2’s mission is a continuation of the original Kepler mission.
Dr. Garnavich is part of a research team known as Kepler Survey extragalactic (KITE). The
team is almost complete mining information derived from the main Kepler
mission, which ended in 2013 following the failure of the reaction
wheels, which helped keep constant spaceship.
However, with the recovery of the spacecraft called Kepler K2 NASA mission, the spacecraft had a second chance to shine. Astronomers are now sift through more data on the hunt for even supernova explosions galaxies far, far away!
“These
results are a prelude to what is enticing to come from K2,” said Dr.
Tom Barclay published March 21, 2016 release NASA press. Dr. Barclay’s
principal investigator and director of the office watching invited
Kepler and K2
in Ames.
In
addition to Notre Dame, the team also includes BARRILETES astronomers
from the University of Maryland at College Park, the Australian National
University in Canberra, Australia;
the Science Institute of the Space Telescope Baltimore, Maryland; and the University of California, Berkeley.
The research is scheduled for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.
Judith
E. Braffman-Miller is a writer and astronomer whose articles have been
published since 1981 in various magazines, newspapers and magazines.
Although
he writes on a variety of topics, particularly enjoys writing about
astronomy because it gives you the ability to communicate to others the
many wonders of their field.
His first book, “Destroyed, ash and smoke,” will be published soon.


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Capturing A Shock Breakout

Breakout, Capturing, Capturing A Shock Breakout, Shock

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